10 Major Historical Battles Which Shaped The Tumultuous Viking Age

Below is a list of 10 major historical battles that unfolded in Scandinavia or overseas during the tumultuous Viking Age. The list comprises a notable series of both land and maritime clashes that shaped the history of the early medieval Scandinavian monarchies (as well as other parts of Europe at the time) which were recorded in various medieval manuscripts (including the Old Norse literature). The historical events briefly detailed below are listed in chronological order.

1. Battle of Hafrsfjord


The Battle of Hafrsfjord took place on sea near Hafrsfjord, Stavanger peninsula, present-day Rogaland county, at some point during the late 9th century. Some sources indicate a precise year for the battle which allegedly would be 872 (although this might be nothing more but a 19th century Romantic invention).

Battle of Hafrsfjord, as imagined by Norwegian artist Ole Peter Hansen Balling. Image source: www.commons.wikimedia.org

The significance of this battle is major with respect to western Norway, as it was the first time when this region was entirely unified under a single crown. King Harald Fairhair successfully defeated his foes from Rogaland and Sognefjord areas, thus imposing his own rule in the region. In order to commemorate the event, the Sverd i fjell (Swords in Rock) monument was erected in Stavanger.

2. Battle of Fýrisvellir


The Battle of Fýrisvellir is one of the most earliest and important military clashes of the Viking period. It took place in circa 984 near modern day Uppsala in Sweden.

At stake there was the throne of Sweden, which was contested at the time by Eric the Victorious (known as Erik Segersäll in Swedish) and Styrbjörn the Strong, the son of semi-legendary Swedish King Olof Björnsson, as well as leader of a powerful order of semi-legendary mercenary warriors known as the Jomsvikings.

After the Battle of Fýrisvellir, as imagined by Swedish artist Mårten Eskil Winge. Image source: www.commons.wikimedia.org

It resulted in a key victory for King Eric, the demise of Styrbjörn, and a powerful defeat for the order of the Jomsviking mercenary warriors.

3. Battle of Hjörungavágr


The Battle of Hjörungavágr was a semi-legendary naval clash between the warships under the command of Earl Haakon Sigurdarson (the de facto leader of early medieval Norway during the late 10th century) and a consistent number of vessels pertaining to the Jomsvikings.

Although the precise location of the battle is quite debatable, it is assumed that the warships confronted on the turbulent waters off the coast of district Sunnmøre (South Møre) from present day Møre og Romsdal county, western Norway, in circa 986.

Artistic depiction of the Battle of Hjörungavágr by Norwegian illustrator Halfdan Egedius. Image source: www.commons.wikimedia.org

It was a maritime battle of considerable proportions, given the fact that 180 ships fought for Earl Haakon Sigurdarson and 60 ones for the Jomsvikings. The outcome of the battle was a consolidation of Haakon Sigurdarson’s rule over early medieval Norway as the 10th century came to an end.

4. Battle of Svolder


The Battle of Svolder took place circa September, 999 or 1000. It was a maritime clash that was fought between King Olaf Tryggvason of Norway and an alliance formed of the Kings of Denmark and Sweden alongside the Jarls (Earls) of Lade.

The mayhem at the Battle of Svolder, as imagined by Norwegian painter Peter Nicolai Arbo. Image source: www.commons.wikimedia.org

On behalf of King Olaf Tryggvason fought 11 warships whilst on the side of Eric Haakonsson (Earl of Lade), Olof Skötkonung (King of Sweden), and Sweyn Forkbeard (King of Denmark) fought more than 70 vessels. This resulted in a decisive victory for the Dano-Swedish alliance supported by the Earls of Lade as well as in the death of King Olaf Tryggvason. The semi-legendary order of Jomsvikings also took part in the battle, supporting the Danish monarch.

Ormen Lange (English: The Long Serpent), King Olaf Tryggvason’s imposing warship, as imagined by Norwegian painter Halfdan Egedius. Image source: www.commons.wikimedia.org

King Olaf’s ship (known as ‘Ormen Lange’ in Old Norse and as ‘The Long Serpent’ in English) was the last to be captured by the alliance of Vikings from Denmark, Sweden, and the Earldom of Lade (which once spanned territories over present-day Norwegian counties of Trøndelag and Hålogaland). After the end of the battle, early medieval Norway became a possession of the Kingdom of Denmark and was ruled by the Earls of Lade.

5. Battle of Clontarf


The Battle of Clontarf represented a turning point in medieval Irish history as it was the day when the Norsemen were defeated by the Irish High King Brian Boru, as such putting an end to the Norse domination of Ireland. The battle took place on the April 23, 1014 at Clontarf, near contemporary Dublin, on the east coast of Ireland, and lasted from sunrise to sunset (according to the medieval chronicles).

Battle of Clontarf, as depicted by Hugh Frazer in 1826. Image source: www.commons.wikimedia.org

The forces of the High King of Ireland, Brian Boru, clashed against a Norse-Irish alliance led by the then King of Dublin, Sigtrygg Silkbeard, the King of Leinster, Máel Mórda mac Murchada, and an additional Norse regiment in the command of Sigurd of Orkney and Brodir of Mann.

6. Battle of the Helgeå


The Battle of Helgeå took place on sea in 1026 near either Uppland or Scania, southern modern day Sweden, between the Anglo-Danish Kingdom of Cnut the Great and an allied Swedo-Norwegian fleet.

For Cnut the Great battled approximately 600 ships while the navies of Anund Jacob (King of Sweden at the time) and Olaf II (King of Norway at the time) fought roughly 480 ships.

King Olaf II and his shipbuilders, before the battle, as illustrated by Norwegian painter Gerhard Munthe. Image source: www.commons.wikimedia.org

In spite of the fact that Anglo-Danish warships suffered tremendous damages, the battle was won by Cnut the Great. So it was that he had managed to subsequently subdue his regional foes and become a consolidated dominant force in Northern Europe.

7. Battle of Stiklestad


The Battle of Stiklestad took place on 29 July, 1030 at Stiklestad, in present-day county Nord-Trøndelag, Norway. It is one of the most significant military clashes in Norwegian history. The army of King Olaf II of Norway (composed of his hirdmen and allies) faced a so-called ‘peasant’ army, consisting of peasants, noblemen who opposed Olaf II’s rule, and other soldiers allied to Cnut the Great of Denmark.

Battle of Stiklestad, as imagined by Norwegian painter Halfdan Egedius. Image source: www.commons.wikimedia.org

It ultimately resulted in an overwhelming victory on behalf of the ‘peasant’ army and in Olaf II’s death (presumably at the hands of Thorir Hund, a Norse chieftain who ruled over Hålogaland back then).

8. Battle of Fulford


The Battle of Fulford was fought near the village of Fulford, northern England, on 20 September, 1066. The armies of Harald Hardrada and Tostig Godwinson clashed against those of the Earls of Northumbria and Mercia, namely Morcar and Edwin.

Artistic depiction of the Battle of Fulford. Image source: www.battlegroundyorkshire.blogspot

The English confronted the Norsemen on open field, although they could have stood behind the walls of York. Nevertheless, they decided to cross the River Ouse and try to break the Viking ‘shield wall’ in the process, yet they were unsuccessful. This resulted in a decisive Norwegian victory.

It represented part of a series of military clashes that will eventually prove decisive in English history (alongside the Battle of Stamford Bridge and the Battle of Hastings which unfolded later during the same year).

9. Battle of Stamford Bridge


The Battle of Stamford Bridge took place at the village of Stamford Bridge, near York, in late September 1066. It was fought between King Harald Godwinson of England and King Harald Hardrada of Norway (the latter being equally supported by Godwinson’s brother, Tostig).

Battle of Stamford Bridge (September 25, 1066), as depicted in a painting by Peter Nicolai Arbo. Image source: www.commons.wikimedia.org

In the end, it was a decisive English victory which also resulted in the deaths of Tostig Godwinson and of Harald Hardrada. The battle is often regarded as putting an end to the Viking Age, despite the fact that there were subsequent Norse military incursions led by King Sweyn II of Denmark or King Magnus Barefoot of Norway in late 11th century and early 12th century respectively.

10. Battle of Hastings


The Battle of Hastings doubtlessly represented one of the most important turning points in English medieval history when, with the support of an invading Norman-French army, William I (formerly Duke of Normandy) conquered England and crowned himself as king after he defeated Harold Godwinson.

William the Conqueror crossed the English Channel and clashed against Godwinson on 14 October, 1066, near the town of Hastings, located in present-day county of East Sussex, southern England. The English had already been weakened by the previous battles against the invading Norsemen stemming from northwest, which made it easier for Duke William of Normandy to have the upper hand over Godwinson’s quite war-waged and rather tired army.

The Battle of Hastings, as imagined by Franco-British painter Philip James de Loutherbourg. Image source: www.commons.wikimedia.org

It was a decisive Norman victory which paved the road for the Norman conquest of England (and, later on, resulted in the Norman conquest of Ireland via England). As such, a new language, Anglo-Norman, resulted partly from the ethnic combination of Anglo-Saxons and Normans and also from the official status of the newly introduced French as language of administration and aristocracy.

Note: This is the 100th article posted in the ‘History’ category of the website.

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